Before constructing a cluster, it is important to understand the concepts and services that are involved in UNIX networking. This section presents the basics in preparation for the step-by-step configuration of a simple cluster coming up in Section 5.4. Additional information on the topics presented here can be found in .
Each node in the cluster must be assigned a unique IP address. IP addresses consist of 32 bits or four octets and are usually expressed by writing each octet in decimal and separating the octets with a decimal point. This is known as dotted decimal notation. As an example, 192.168.13.24 is a valid IP address.
A netmask is used to split the IP address into two parts: the network address and the host address. The netmask expresses how many of the high-end bits of an IP address are part of the network address. The low-end bits of the IP address then form the host address. Using the previous example address of 192.168.13.24, asserting a netmask of 255.255.255.0 would mean that the network address is 192.168.13.0 and the host address on that network is 24. Two special host addresses are reserved and may not be used to identify an actual host. All bits turned off (or zero) is the address of the network, and all bits turned on (or 255 in our example) is the network broadcast address.
Hosts that share the same network address are generally part of the same physical network and can talk directly to each other. Hosts on different networks require a router to talk to each other. The router uses the network portion of the destination IP address to determine onto which physical network link to forward the data packet. In complex networks, the data packet may be forwarded by several routers before it finally reaches the destination network and ultimately the destination host. To begin this forwarding process, the sending host must know the address of the router on its local network. The address of this router is know as the gateway address.
Not all IP addresses are routable to the Internet. Three address ranges have been reserved for private (internal) networks:
10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255
172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255
192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255
These address ranges may be used by clusters that either have no need to communicate with Internet resources or are hidden behind a firewall that does network address translation (NAT). Discussion of network address translation is beyond the scope of this chapter; however, the interested reader will find the topic covered in .
In addition to an IP address, each node in the cluster will require a unique name. Names generally come in two forms: short and long. The long name is used when referring to the host from outside of the local domain (or subdomain) in which it is present. The long name for the first node in our Beowulf cluster might be bc1-001.phy.myu.edu. Notice that the long name is hierarchical. It refers to the node bc1-001 in the phy (short for the Physics department) subdomain which is part of the myu.edu domain. The short name, bc1-001, is often used when referring to the node from within the local subdomain, the Physics department.
With clusters, it is common practice to name the cluster nodes after their host addresses. For example, nodes in a 128 node cluster with IP addresses ranging from 192.168.13.1 through 192.168.13.128 and a netmask of 255.255.255.0 might be named bc1-001 through bc1-128. Computer scientists who prefer to begin counting their nodes from zero should recall that host address zero is reserved for the network address (192.168.13.0 in our example). To avoid having the host address and the node name differ by one, it is best to number nodes starting from one .
An additional side effect to starting the node number and host address of the first node at one is that the gateway address must follow that of the nodes. To allow room for expansion, the gateway address is generally given the maximum available host address. Remember, that the maximum host address is reserved for the network broadcast address, so the gateway address is generally assigned the address just prior to the network broadcast address. In our continuing example, the gateway address would be 192.168.13.254.
Given a set of hostnames and IP addresses for the nodes in the cluster, a mechanism is needed to map from one to the other. For a small number of nodes, this can be accomplished with a hosts file ('/etc/hosts'). The hosts file will include a line for each node in the cluster. Each line contains the IP address of the node followed by the names the nodes is known by, usually the long name first followed by the short.
The hosts file traditionally contains one additional mapping from the names localhost and localhost.phy.myu.edu to 127.0.0.1. The address 127.0.0.1 is tied to the loopback device driver that funnels all messages sent from it back to the same host. The combination of the loopback device and the mapping in the hosts file allows a host to communicate with itself as though it were any other host on the network simply by using the name localhost.
One caveat of using a hosts file is that it must be replicated and kept current on every node in the cluster. However, for most environments, the hosts file does not change that often. A master copy can be kept on one node of our cluster and then pushed to the other nodes when changes are made. This push operation would be tedious to do by hand, but it is not very difficult to write a script to copy the hosts file to the other nodes using a program like scp. A brief description of scp can be found in Section 5.3.5. Chapter 6 describes tools that can handle all of these setup steps for you; the material in this section describes some of the operations that those tools must perform and provides some background for understanding how those tools work.
As an alternative, the Network Information Service (NIS) exists to perform this type of replication automatically. NIS allows the system administrator to manage a single copy of important files like the hosts file on one node designated as the NIS server. The other nodes, acting as NIS clients, obtain the host information from the NIS server as necessary.
In addition to maintaining a single copy of the hosts file, NIS can also be used to propagate account ('/etc/passwd') and group ('/etc/group') information, as well as other important system files. A more detailed explanation on the capabilities of NIS can be found in . An example configuration of a NIS server and clients will be shown in Section 5.4.
Another option for avoiding the replication of the hosts file is the Domain Name Service (DNS). DNS differs from NIS in two major ways. First, its sole purpose is to return information about a host or domain. Second, it performs resolution for hosts outside of the local domain. DNS is by design a scalable distributed database capable of handling name resolution for the entire Internet. Further information on DNS and Berkeley's implementation (BIND) can be found in .
DNS and NIS are designed to work together. It is not uncommon to use NIS for resolution of local hostnames and DNS for resolving names external to the local domain (or subdomain).
In most networked computing environments, the ability to share files with other machines on the network is extremely useful. Such a capability allows system administrators to install a software package once an make it accessible to a set of machines. File sharing also allows users to create a file on one machine and access it from a variety of other machines on the local-area network. For Linux environments, this file sharing capability is traditionally provided by the Network File System (NFS).
File sharing is useful on Beowulf clusters for the same reasons. Application programs built by users typically reference libraries from other software packages. If these software packages use shared libraries, ones that are dynamically loaded at runtime, then those libraries must be accessible on all nodes where the application is being run. Thus the system administrator has two choices: installing the necessary packages on each of the nodes or using a network based file system like NFS to make the packages available to each of the nodes.
Likewise, the typical user of a Beowulf cluster will wish to run their application on several nodes, perhaps simultaneously. Most users find copying their application's executable and input data files to each node before executing the application undesirable. Instead, they would like to build their application on a single machine, construct any necessary input files on that same machine, and have the executable and input files automatically available on all nodes of the cluster. Again, a file sharing system like NFS can help. Using NFS, the users' home directories can be exported from one machine to each of the cluster nodes, allowing access to these home directories from anywhere in the cluster. A detailed explanation of NFS and its capabilities can be found in .
The purpose of building a Beowulf cluster is to run user applications. In a networked computing environment, users typically do not have access to the console of all the compute resources. Even if they did, it is much more convenient to access those resources from the workstations present on their desktops. Clusters are simply an array of compute resources with which users wish to interact, execute programs, and share files.
A traditional UNIX system has programs like telnet and rlogin to establish an interactive terminal session with remote compute resource over the network. In addition, rsh executes commands on the remote resource without user interaction, and rcp transfers files between a local and remote resource when direct file sharing is not available. The last two commands are especially powerful because they allow complex remote operations to be scripted and executed without user interaction.
The problem with all of these commands is security. None of the data transferred between the local and remote hosts is encrypted, thus allowing the data to be easily read if captured by someone monitoring network traffic. While a user might not care if someone saw their interactions with a remote resource, telnet transmits the user's password over that same unencrypted channel. All users should care if their passwords are visible to potential outside attackers.
The rsh and rcp commands do not send passwords, making them somewhat more secure. Instead they use host based authentication. If the host is listed in the system's or user's authorized hosts file on the remote machine, then the command is allow to proceed. The rlogin command will also use host based authentication if possible; but, if the host is not authorized, rlogin will ask for the user's password.
Clearly, host based authentication is preferable to sending a password in clear text. However, host based authentication is not without its problems. First, all hosts on the local network must be strictly controlled. Physical security is important. If a malicious host is allowed to attach to the local network, it can be configured to appear as an authorized host, thus compromising security. Second, access to the authorized hosts files must be tightly controlled. If these files can be compromised, so too can the machines for which they control access. Hence, many system administrators disallow the use of user controlled authorization files (i.e., '~/.rhosts').
SSH, or the Secure Shell, was designed as a replacement for the previously mentioned remote access tools. However, SSH is more than a just remote execution shell. It is a suite of tools utilizing public-private key based authentication and modern day encryption to provide a secure means of remote access. As might be expected, it contains programs like slogin, ssh, and scp to replace their less secure counterparts. SSH also contains tools for creating and managing authentication keys, the foundation of its security. In addition, recent implementations like OpenSSH also provide a secure form of FTP.
SSH uses host authentication keys to verify that a host is the expected host and not a malicious decoy. During connection establishment, these keys are used to verify that the connection is with the expected remote host before vital information, such as the user's password, is sent. If host based authentication is employed, the connecting host can be verified before authorization is granted. It is still important to strictly control which hosts are authorized and to disallow user controlled authorization files; but, on a properly configured system, SSH's use of host authentication keys substantially reduces the security risk associated with host based authentication.
SSH can also use authentication keys as a replacement for user passwords. The advantages may not be immediately apparent; however, when combined with the SSH agent, user authentication keys can be very powerful. A more detailed discussion of authentication keys, both host and user, and the SSH agent will be presented in Section 5.4.6.
An octet is just 8 bits, which is the same as a byte in most modern systems. The term octet is used in networking to specify precisely 8 bits. Once was a day when machines with 6-bit characters and 36-bit or 60-bit words were common, and the term octet was coined to ensure that 8 bits were used.