10.1 The PVM System

10.1 The PVM System

The PVM system is composed of two parts. The first part is a daemon, called pvmd3 and sometimes abbreviated pvmd, that must be installed on all the computers making up the virtual machine. (An example of a daemon program is the mail program that runs in the background and handles all the incoming and outgoing electronic mail on a computer.) The daemon pvmd3 is designed so any user with a valid login can install this daemon on a machine. To run a PVM application, you first create a virtual machine by starting up PVM (Section 10.3.2 details how this is done). Multiple users can configure virtual machines that overlap the same cluster nodes, and each user can execute several applications simultaneously on his own virtual machine.

The second part of the system is a library of PVM interface routines. It contains a functionally complete repertoire of primitives that are needed for cooperation between tasks of an application. This library contains user-callable routines for fault detection, message passing, spawning processes, coordinating tasks, and modifying the virtual machine.

The Parallel Virtual Machine computing environment is based on the following concepts:

  • User-configured host pool: The application's parallel tasks execute on a set of machines that are selected by the user for a given run of the PVM program. The host pool may be altered by adding and deleting machines at any time (an important feature for fault tolerance). When PVM is used on Beowulf clusters, the nodes within a cluster and/or nodes spanning multiple clusters make up the host pool. There is no restriction on the number of parallel tasks that can exist in a given virtual machine. If the number of tasks exceeds the number of processors in the cluster, then PVM will run multiple tasks per processor.

  • Translucent access to hardware: Application programs may view the hardware environment as a transparent computing resource or may exploit the capabilities of specific machines in the host pool by positioning certain tasks on the most appropriate computers. On large clusters, for example, I/O nodes may run the monitoring tasks and compute nodes may get the bulk of the computing load.

  • Explicit message-passing: PVM provides basic blocking and nonblocking send, receive, and collective communication operations. For performance, PVM uses the native message-passing facilities on multiprocessors to take advantage of the underlying hardware. For example, on the IBM SP, PVM transparently uses IBM's MPI to move data. On the SGI multiprocessor, PVM uses shared memory to move data. On Linux clusters PVM typically uses a mixture of UDP and TCP/IP to move data.

  • Dynamic program model: The PVM system supports a dynamic programming model where hosts and tasks can come and go at any time. PVM tasks are dynamic. New ones can be spawned and existing ones killed at any time by the application or manually from any host in the virtual machine. The virtual machine monitors its state and automatically adapts to such changes.

  • Dynamic Groups: In some applications it is natural to think of a group of tasks. And there are cases where you would like to identify your tasks by the numbers 0 to (p - 1), where p is the number of tasks. PVM includes the concept of user-named groups. When a task joins a group, it is assigned a unique "instance" number in that group. Instance numbers start at 0 and count up (similar to an MPI "rank"). In keeping with the dynamic programming model in PVM , the group functions are designed to be very general and transparent to the user. For example, any PVM task can join or leave any group at any time without having to inform any other task in the affected groups, groups can overlap, and tasks can broadcast messages to groups of which they are not a member. To use any of the group functions, a program must be linked with 'libgpvm3.a'.

Part III: Managing Clusters