Apache Performance Notes: http://httpd.apache.org/docs/misc/perf-tuning.html.
OS-specific hints on running a high-performance web server: http://httpd.apache.org/docs/misc/perf.html.
"The Case for Persistent-Connection HTTP," by Jeffrey C. Mogul: http://www.research.compaq.com/wrl/techreports/abstracts/95.4.html.
This paper discusses the pros and cons of persistent-connection HTTP, in particular talking about KeepAlive.
Chapter 9 ("Tuning Apache and mod_perl) in mod_perl Developer's Cookbook, by Geoffrey Young, Paul Lindner, and Randy Kobes (Sams Publishing).