A.1 Borland C++ Builder and Kylix

Borland has several extensions to C++ to support its Rapid Application Development products: C++ Builder (for Microsoft Windows) and Kylix (for Linux). This section presents highlights of the RAD extensions.

_ _closure

In C++ Builder, a closure is like a pointer to a member function that has been bound to a specific object. Given a closure, you can call it the way you would call an ordinary function. To declare a closure type or object, use _ _closure as a modifier for the name of a function pointer:

typedef int (* _  _closure MemFunc)(int);

MemFunc func;

struct demo {

  int sqr(int x) { return x * x; }


demo d;

func = d.sqr;

int n = func(10); // n = 100
_ _declspec

The _ _declspec keyword takes an attribute in parentheses and serves as a declaration specifier. Depending on the attribute, it can be used to modify a function, object, or class. For example, _ _declspec(noreturn) is a function specifier that tells the compiler that the function does not return, which permits additional optimization and error-checking (for example, eliminating statements that follow a call to the noreturn function):

void _  _declspec(noreturn) abort(  );

Other attributes include:


A storage-class specifier that declares an object to be local to a thread; that is, each runtime thread has a separate copy of the object.


A function specifier that tells the linker to export the function name from a dynamic-link library (DLL).

uuid( string-literal)

Modifies a class declaration. It associates a universally unique identifier (UUID) with the class, which is required for implementing COM objects in Windows. A class's UUID can be retrieved with the _ _uuidof operator.

_ _int64

The _ _int64 type is a 64-bit integer type. In current releases of C++ Builder and Kylix, long is 32 bits. A 64-bit integer literal is written with a suffix of i64 (e.g., 10000000000000i64).

_ _property

A property is a class member that is used like a data member, but it can have the semantics of a member function. Properties are the foundation for the RAD features of C++ Builder and Kylix. A property is associated with a reader and writer, which can be data member names or member function names:

class TControl {


  int height_;

  void set_height(int h);

 . . . 

_  _published:

  _  _property int height { read=height_, write=set_height };


TControl * ctl = new TControl;

ctl->height = 10;    // Calls ctl->set_height(10)

int h = ctl->height; // Gets ctl->height_
_ _published

The _ _published access specifier label yields the same accessibility as the public keyword, but it also directs the compiler to store additional runtime type information (RTTI) for the published declarations. The RAD features use the RTTI when the user designs an application

_ _thread

The _ _thread keyword is a synonym for _ _declspec(thread).

_ _uuidof

The _ _uuidof operator takes an expression as an operand and returns the UUID of the expression's class. The class declares its UUID with _ _declspec(uuid( . . . )). A class can implement the standard COM member function, QueryInterface, with _ _uuidof:

class demo {

  virtual HRESULT QueryInterface(const UUID& iid, void** obj)


    if (iid == _  _uuidof(IUnknown)) {

      *obj = reinterpret_cast<IUnknown*>(this);

      static_cast<IUnknown*>(*obj)->AddRef(  );

      return S_OK;


    return E_NOINTERFACE;