You can subclass any of the standard exception classes in order to define your own exception class. Typically, such a subclass adds nothing more than a docstring:
class InvalidAttribute(AttributeError): "Used to indicate attributes that could never be valid"
Given the semantics of try/except, raising a custom exception class such as InvalidAttribute is almost the same as raising its standard exception superclass, AttributeError. Any except clause able to handle AttributeError can handle InvalidAttribute just as well. In addition, client code that knows specifically about your InvalidAttribute custom exception class can handle it specifically, without having to handle all other cases of AttributeError if it is not prepared for those. For example:
class SomeFunkyClass(object): "much hypothetical functionality snipped" def _ _getattr_ _(self, name): "this _ _getattr_ _ only clarifies the kind of attribute error" if name.startswith('_'): raise InvalidAttribute, "Unknown private attribute "+name else: raise AttributeError, "Unknown attribute "+name
Now client code can be more selective in its handlers. For example:
s = SomeFunkyClass( ) try: value = getattr(s, thename) except InvalidAttribute, err warnings.warn(str(err)) value = None # other cases of AttributeError just propagate, as they're unexpected
A special case of custom exception class that you may sometimes find useful is one that wraps another exception and adds further information. To gather information about a pending exception, you can use the exc_info function from module sys (covered in Chapter 8). Given this, your custom exception class could be defined as follows:
import sys class CustomException(Exception): "Wrap arbitrary pending exception, if any, in addition to other info" def _ _init_ _(self, *args): Exception._ _init_ _(self, *args) self.wrapped_exc = sys.exc_info( )
You would then typically use this class in a wrapper function such as:
def call_wrapped(callable, *args, **kwds): try: return callable(*args, **kwds) except: raise CustomException, "Wrapped function propagated exception"