Run-length encoding (RLE) is the simplest widely used lossless-compression technique. Like whitespace compression, it is "cheap"?especially to decode. The idea behind it is that many data representations consist largely of strings of repeated bytes. Our example report is one such data representation. It begins with a string of repeated "=", and has strings of spaces scattered through it. Rather than represent each character with its own byte, RLE will (sometimes or always) have an iteration count followed by the character to be repeated.
If repeated bytes are predominant within the expected data representation, it might be adequate and efficient to always have the algorithm specify one or more bytes of iteration count, followed by one character. However, if one-length character strings occur, these strings will require two (or more) bytes to encode them; that is, 00000001 01011000 might be the output bit stream required for just one ASCII "X" of the input stream. Then again, a hundred "X" in a row would be output as 01100100 01011000, which is quite good.
What is frequently done in RLE variants is to selectively use bytes to indicate iterator counts and otherwise just have bytes represent themselves. At least one byte-value has to be reserved to do this, but that can be escaped in the output, if needed. For example, in our example telephone-number report, we know that everything in the input stream is plain ASCII characters. Specifically, they all have bit one of their ASCII value as 0. We could use this first ASCII bit to indicate that an iterator count was being represented rather than representing a regular character. The next seven bits of the iterator byte could be used for the iterator count, and the next byte could represent the character to be repeated. So, for example, we could represent the string "YXXXXXXXX" as:
"Y" Iter(8) "X" 01001111 10001000 01011000
This example does not show how to escape iterator byte-values, nor does it allow iteration of more than 127 occurrences of a character. Variations on RLE deal with issues such as these, if needed.