# 5.12 Precomputing Keystream in OFB, CTR, CCM, or CWC Modes (or with Stream Ciphers)

#### 5.12.1 Problem

You want to save computational resources when data is actually flowing over a network by precomputing keystream so that encryption or decryption will consist merely of XOR'ing data with the precomputed keystream.

#### 5.12.2 Solution

If your API has a function that performs keystream generation, use that. Otherwise, call the encryption routine, passing in N bytes set to 0, where N is the number of bytes of keystream you wish to precompute.

#### 5.12.3 Discussion

Most cryptographic APIs do not have an explicit way to precompute keystream for cipher modes where such precomputation makes sense. Fortunately, any byte XOR'd with zero returns the original byte. Therefore, to recover the keystream, we can "encrypt" a string of zeros. Then, when we have data that we really do wish to encrypt, we need only XOR that data with the stored keystream.

If you have the source for the encryption algorithm, you can remove the final XOR operation to create a keystream-generating function. For example, the spc_ctr_update( ) function from Recipe 5.9 can be adapted easily into the following keystream generator:

```int spc_ctr_keystream(SPC_CTR_CTX *ctx, size_t il, unsigned char *out) {
int i;

if (ctx->ix) {
while (ctx->ix) {
if (!il--) return 1;
*out++ = ctx->ksm[ctx->ix++];
ctx->ix %= SPC_BLOCK_SZ;
}
}
if (!il) return 1;
while (il >= SPC_BLOCK_SZ) {
SPC_DO_ENCRYPT(&(ctx->ks), ctx->ctr, out);
ctr_increment(ctx->ctr);
il  -= SPC_BLOCK_SZ;
out += SPC_BLOCK_SZ;
}
SPC_DO_ENCRYPT(&(ctx->ks), ctx->ctr, ctx->ksm);
ctr_increment(ctx->ctr);
for (i = 0;  i <il;  i++) *out++ = ctx->ksm[ctx->ix++];
return 1;
}```

Note that we simply remove the in argument along with the XOR operation whenever we write to the output buffer.

 Foreword
 Preface
 Chapter 1. Safe Initialization
 Chapter 2. Access Control
 Chapter 3. Input Validation
 Chapter 4. Symmetric Cryptography Fundamentals
 Chapter 6. Hashes and Message Authentication
 Chapter 7. Public Key Cryptography
 Chapter 8. Authentication and Key Exchange
 Chapter 9. Networking
 Chapter 10. Public Key Infrastructure
 Chapter 11. Random Numbers
 Chapter 12. Anti-Tampering
 Chapter 13. Other Topics
 Colophon