Whether it is for user presentation, report formatting, or data feed extraction, data is seldom presented exactly as it is stored in the database. Instead, data is generally combined, translated, or formatted in some way. Although procedural languages such as PL/SQL and Java provide many tools for manipulating data, it is often desirable to perform these manipulations as the data is extracted from the database. Similarly, when updating data, it is far easier to modify the data in place rather than to extract it, modify it, and apply the modified data back to the database. This chapter will focus on two powerful features of Oracle SQL that facilitate various data manipulations: the CASE expression and the DECODE function. Along the way we'll also demonstrate the use of several other functions (such as NVL and NVL2).