What is a chapter on interoperability doing in a book on LDAP? After all, I've presented LDAP throughout this book as a standard protocol, and standards are supposed to minimize, if not eliminate, interoperability problems. One of the major selling points of LDAP is its potential for consolidating vendor-specific or application-specific directories. We've seen many examples of this: using LDAP as a replacement for NIS, as a backend data store for DNS, and as a replacement for many ad hoc databases used in email management.
Still, while LDAP minimizes interoperability problems, "minimize" is definitely the key word. The core features of LDAP are standardized, but things such as schemas are not. There are many common object classes and attributes that can be extended by a vendor. Not only can schemas be extended, the protocol can be extended as well by creating additional operations using extensions and controls, and not all vendors support the same ones.
For each service that can be consolidated into an LDAP directory, there must be a corresponding client-side application that can access the old information in the new directory. That's not always an easy order to fill; we've already seen some clever workarounds to help older applications access an LDAP directory, such as using the pam_ldap library presented in Chapter 6 to enable non-LDAP-aware applications to authenticate users in the directory. Furthermore, sooner or later you will encounter an LDAP-enabled application that requires the directory service to implement a specific schema or extended operation.
The goal of this chapter is to discuss several technologies that you can use to solve problems of this sort. Every directory integration project is unique. I will show how to solve a number of common directory integration problems?and although the problems I discuss are typical enough, they're only a small fraction of the problems you're likely to face. The most effective way to prepare yourself to solve the problems posed by your environment is to examine the tools, concepts, and architectures that can be combined into a solution to meet the needs of your users.