List of Figures

List of Figures

Chapter 1: Introduction to the GSM System

Figure 1.1: Example of a cell planning.
Figure 1.2: General architecture of a GSM network.
Figure 1.3: TDMA and FDMA.
Figure 1.4: Slot numbering within the TDMA frame.
Figure 1.5: Hierarchical structure of a hyperframe.
Figure 1.6: Mapping of a TCH/FS and SACCH/FS on the 26-multiframe.
Figure 1.7: Mapping of a TCH/HS and SACCH/HS on the 26-multiframe.
Figure 1.8: Channel associations on the 51-multiframe. (a) BCCH + CCCH, (b) 8 SDCCH/8, and (c) BCCH + CCCH 4 SDCCH/4. (From— [4].)
Figure 1.9: The voice transmission chain.
Figure 1.10: Interleaving scheme on the TCH.
Figure 1.11: Structure of an NB.
Figure 1.12: Example of frame stealing— multiplexing of a TCH and an FACCH.
Figure 1.13: Ideal GMSK spectrum and required spectrum mask.
Figure 1.14: The (a) FB, (b) SB, and (c) AB burst structures.
Figure 1.15: Propagation delay difference between two MSs transmitting to the same BTS.
Figure 1.16: Correction of MS transmission timing to compensate for propagation delay.
Figure 1.17: Monitoring during a TDMA frame.

Chapter 2: GPRS Services

Figure 2.1: GPRS mobile configured as a client.
Figure 2.2: Applications in terms of QoS requirements. (From— [1].)

Chapter 3: Overview of GPRS

Figure 3.1: GPRS network architecture.
Figure 3.2: Transmission plane MS-GGSN.
Figure 3.3: Signaling plane MS-SGSN.
Figure 3.4: Signaling plane GSN-GSN.
Figure 3.5: Signaling plane on the Gr interface.
Figure 3.6: Signaling plane on the Gc interface.
Figure 3.7: Signaling plane on the Gf interface.
Figure 3.8: Signaling plane on the Gs interface.
Figure 3.9: Signaling plane on the Gd interface.
Figure 3.10: Time slots and TDMA frames.
Figure 3.11: Transition between RR operating modes.
Figure 3.12: Example of mapping of TBFs with their respective TFI onto PDCHs.
Figure 3.13: Principle of dynamic allocation.
Figure 3.14: Remote PCU position. (From— [1].)
Figure 3.15: BSS transmission plane for a remote PCU.
Figure 3.16: BSS transmission plane when the PCU is in the BTS.
Figure 3.17: Signaling plane when PCU is in the BTS.
Figure 3.18: Signaling plane when PCU is at BSC or SGSN side.
Figure 3.19: RA concept.
Figure 3.20: Structure of RAI.
Figure 3.21: Global states of GPRS mobility. (From— [1].)
Figure 3.22: Paging in idle mode with CCCH/PCCCH for network operation mode I.
Figure 3.23: CS paging in packet transfer mode for network operation mode I.
Figure 3.24: Paging in idle mode for network operation mode II.
Figure 3.25: Paging in idle mode for network operation mode III.
Figure 3.26: Principle of GPRS authentication.
Figure 3.27: Ciphering and deciphering procedure.
Figure 3.28: Transmission plane on Gb interface.
Figure 3.29: BSSGP position.
Figure 3.30: Architecture of GPRS backbone network. (From— [1].)
Figure 3.31: Tunneling mechanism for IP packet sending toward MS.

Chapter 4: Radio Interface: Physical Layer

Figure 4.1: The 52-multiframe.
Figure 4.2: Master channel configuration example on uplink.
Figure 4.3: Master channel configuration example on downlink.
Figure 4.4: Radio block encoding for CS-1 to CS-3.
Figure 4.5: Radio block encoding for CS-4.
Figure 4.6: Example of uplink power control in open loop.
Figure 4.7: Downlink power control for a block addressed to two different mobiles.
Figure 4.8: Example of downlink power control mode A.
Figure 4.9: Example of downlink power control mode B.
Figure 4.10: Collision between idle frames and SACCH frames or PTCCH frames.
Figure 4.11: Allowed configurations for multislot class 12. (a) 4 RX + 1 TX, (b) 3 RX + 2 TX, (c) 2 RX + 3 TX, and (d) 1 RX + 4 TX.
Figure 4.12: Multislot power versus time mask for the NB and for the AB— (a) power level is higher on first time slot; and (b) power level is higher on second time slot.
Figure 4.13: Circuit for a convolutional code.
Figure 4.14: Circuit for the rate 1/2 code defined by G0 and G1.
Figure 4.15: Example with the input bit sequence 1 0 0 1.
Figure 4.16: Discrete memoryless channel.
Figure 4.17: Example of 1/2 convolutional code.
Figure 4.18: Associated trellis diagram for the example code.
Figure 4.19: Representation of the survivors at step 5.
Figure 4.20: BER estimation for the RXQUAL measurement— operations in the (a) transmitter and (b) receiver.
Figure 4.21: IF receiver architecture.
Figure 4.22: Problem of image frequency in IF architecture.
Figure 4.23: Zero-IF receiver architecture.
Figure 4.24: The dc offset sources in the ZIF receiver—
Figure 4.25: AM problem.
Figure 4.26: Near-zero-IF architecture.
Figure 4.27: NF calculation.
Figure 4.28: Demodulation performance BLER versus Eb/N0, static channel. (From— [5].)
Figure 4.29: Nonlinear response.
Figure 4.30: IP3 definition.
Figure 4.31: AGC loop mechanism.
Figure 4.32: Synthesizer lock-time constraint for a class 12 MS.

Chapter 5: Radio Interface: RLC/MAC Layer

Figure 5.1: Mapping of PSI messages.
Figure 5.2: Example of mobile allocation definition.
Figure 5.3: Example of the use of CCCH_GROUP and PAGING_GROUP concepts for the required paging subchannel PCH decoding.
Figure 5.4: Downlink signaling failure mechanism.
Figure 5.5: Channel request and packet channel request format.
Figure 5.6: Access persistence control on PRACH.
Figure 5.7: One-phase access establishment scenario on CCCH.
Figure 5.8: Two-phase access establishment scenario on CCCH.
Figure 5.9: One-phase access establishment scenario on PCCCH.
Figure 5.10: Two-phase access establishment scenario on PCCCH.
Figure 5.11: Packet queuing notification procedure.
Figure 5.12: Procedure for uplink establishment when the MS is in Packet Transfer Mode.
Figure 5.13: Modification of the uplink TBF initiated by the network.
Figure 5.14: Contention at TBF establishment.
Figure 5.15: Contention resolution at one-phase access.
Figure 5.16: Downlink TBF establishment on CCCH.
Figure 5.17: Downlink TBF establishment with initial TA computation.
Figure 5.18: Example of downlink TBF establishment on PCCCH.
Figure 5.19: Packet downlink establishment on the PACCH.
Figure 5.20: Measurement report procedure on CCCH in packet idle mode.
Figure 5.21: Measurement report procedure on PCCCH in packet idle mode.
Figure 5.22: Segmentation mechanism.
Figure 5.23: Sliding window mechanism.
Figure 5.24: RLC data block transfer during an uplink TBF.
Figure 5.25: RLC data block transfer during a downlink TBF.
Figure 5.26: Example of RLC/MAC control message segmentation.
Figure 5.27: Procedure for uplink TBF release.
Figure 5.28: Procedure for downlink TBF release.
Figure 5.29: Measurement windows during paging block decoding.
Figure 5.30: Example of time slot allocation in a cell.
Figure 5.31: Mapping of class 6 and class 12 mobiles on a TRX.
Figure 5.32: Mapping of a class 6 mobile on a TRX when the uplink time slot is at the border of the TRX.
Figure 5.33: Example of downlink multiplexing.
Figure 5.34: Example of resource management for the fixed-allocation multiplexing scheme.
Figure 5.35: Polling mechanism.
Figure 5.36: Throughput versus C/I for the different coding schemes (TU50 no FH). (From— [1].)
Figure 5.37: Throughput versus C/I for the different coding schemes (TU3 no FH). (From—[1].)

Chapter 6: Gb Interface

Figure 6.1: Position of the Gb interface.
Figure 6.2: Protocol stack on the Gb interface.
Figure 6.3: The FR frame format.
Figure 6.4: Example of FR network.
Figure 6.5: Explicit congestion notification mechanism.
Figure 6.6: Addressing on the Gb interface.
Figure 6.7: Relationship between NS-VCs and NS-VLs. (From— [1].)
Figure 6.8: Example of addressing between several BSSs and one SGSN.
Figure 6.9: Network configurations.
Figure 6.10: Basic status procedure.
Figure 6.11: Periodic polling procedure.
Figure 6.12: Example of successful link integrity verification procedure.
Figure 6.13: NS-PDUs transfer.
Figure 6.14: NS-VC state transition within the BSS and SGSN.
Figure 6.15: Reset procedure.
Figure 6.16: Example of blocking procedure initiated by the SGSN.
Figure 6.17: Example of unblocking procedure between the SGSN and the BSS.
Figure 6.18: Test procedure initiated by the SGSN.
Figure 6.19: Load-sharing function.
Figure 6.20: BSSGP service model.
Figure 6.21: Data PDUs transfer.
Figure 6.22: Paging PS procedure.
Figure 6.23: Radio access capability update procedure.
Figure 6.24: Radio STATUS procedure.
Figure 6.25: Flush procedure.
Figure 6.26: LLC discarded procedure.
Figure 6.27: BSSGP flow control procedure.
Figure 6.28: BVC state transition in the BSS and SGSN.
Figure 6.29: BVC blocking/unblocking and reset procedures.
Figure 6.30: BSS packet flow context creation.
Figure 6.31: BSS PFC modification and deletion procedures.
Figure 6.32: BVC establishment procedure.
Figure 6.33: Downlink transfer procedure.
Figure 6.34: Cell reselection between two cells belonging to the same NSE and RA with internal transfer of LLC frames.
Figure 6.35: Cell reselection between two cells without internal transfer of LLC frames.

Chapter 7: Signaling Plane

Figure 7.1: GPRS-attach procedure.
Figure 7.2: Combined GPRS/IMSI attach procedure.
Figure 7.3: Normal GPRS detach initiated by MS.
Figure 7.4: Combined GPRS detach initiated by an MS in network operation mode I.
Figure 7.5: Normal GPRS detach initiated by an SGSN.
Figure 7.6: GPRS detach initiated by SGSN in network operation mode I.
Figure 7.7: Combined GPRS detach initiated by HLR.
Figure 7.8: Packet-switched paging for network operation mode III with PCCCH channels.
Figure 7.9: Paging for establishment of a circuit-switched connection for network operation mode I.
Figure 7.10: Authentication of a GPRS subscriber.
Figure 7.11: Cell update.
Figure 7.12: Intra-SGSN RA update.
Figure 7.13: Inter-SGSN RA update.
Figure 7.14: Combined RA and LA update procedure.
Figure 7.15: Control of LLC layer from GMM layer during a GPRS-attach procedure within the MS.
Figure 7.16: Control of LLC layer from GMM layer during an RA update procedure in the MS.
Figure 7.17: TFT filtering mechanism.
Figure 7.18: PDP states.
Figure 7.19: PDP context activation initiated by MS.
Figure 7.20: PDP context activation initiated by network.
Figure 7.21: PDP context deactivation initiated by MS.
Figure 7.22: PDP context deactivation initiated by SGSN.
Figure 7.23: PDP context deactivation initiated by GGSN.
Figure 7.24: PDP context modification initiated by SGSN.
Figure 7.25: PDP context modification initiated by MS.
Figure 7.26: PDP context modification initiated by GGSN.
Figure 7.27: Secondary PDP context activation.
Figure 7.28: Path management procedure.
Figure 7.29: GGSN-HLR signaling via a GTP-MAP protocol-converter in a GSN. (From—[1].)

Chapter 8: User Plane

Figure 8.1: IP packets conveyed between MS and SGSN.
Figure 8.2: LLC-layer structure.
Figure 8.3: Example of state variable management.
Figure 8.4: Multiplexing procedure.
Figure 8.5: Multiplexing of N-PDUs.
Figure 8.6: Scenarios for ABM establishment and release procedures.
Figure 8.7: Tree structure.
Figure 8.8: Segmentation mechanism for acknowledged transmission mode.
Figure 8.9: Segmentation mechanism for unacknowledged transmission mode.
Figure 8.10: Buffer recopy mechanism from SNCP layer to LLC layer.
Figure 8.11: No buffer recopy from SNDCP layer to LLC layer.
Figure 8.12: Buffer management from LLC layer to SNDCP layer (example 1).
Figure 8.13: Buffer management from LLC layer to SNDCP layer (example 2).
Figure 8.14: IP packet sending in uplink direction.
Figure 8.15: IP packet sending in downlink direction.
Figure 8.16: IP network interworking. (From—[1].)
Figure 8.17: Interworking with PDN based on IP.
Figure 8.18: PDP context activation for non transparent access to ISP/intranet.
Figure 8.19: Interworking with PDNs based on PPP access.
Figure 8.20: PDP context activation for access to packet data network based on PPP.


 
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