List of Figures

List of Figures

Chapter 1: Introduction to MVPN

Figure 1.1: Example of Mobile Virtual Private Networking.
Figure 1.2: The IEEE standards process.

Chapter 2: Data Networking Technologies

Figure 2.1: The L2TP model.
Figure 2.2: The L2TP message header.
Figure 2.3: The minimal encapsulation for IP.
Figure 2.4: Mobile IP model.
Figure 2.5: Typical Mobile IP registration procedure.
Figure 2.6: GTPv0 and GTPv1 headers.
Figure 2.7: IPSec tunnel mode and transport mode with ESP and AH.
Figure 2.8: Sample IPSec architecture (gateways and hosts).
Figure 2.9: PKI based on distributed CA hierarchy.
Figure 2.10: MPLS (labeling) versus tunneling.
Figure 2.11: Label stack encoding header options.
Figure 2.12: The "transparent wrapper" and "pipe" models.
Figure 2.13: Accounting data collection architecture in UMTS/GPRS and CDMA2000.
Figure 2.14: AAA proxy and broker architecture examples: CDMA2000.
Figure 2.15: DHCP protocol-based IP address assignment.
Figure 2.16: Sample hostname structure.
Figure 2.17: DNS query for hostname resolution.

Chapter 3: Wireless Systems Overview: A Radio Interface Perspective

Figure 3.1: Cellular systems migration paths.
Figure 3.2: Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) principles.
Figure 3.3: 2G technologies worldwide market share in subscribers (2002).
Figure 3.4: Time Division Multiple Access.
Figure 3.5: 3GPP UMTS architecture.
Figure 3.6: Edge taxonomy.
Figure 3.7: Typical WLAN topology.

Chapter 4: Wireless Systems Overview: Data Services Perspective

Figure 4.1: Wireless packet data tunneling mechanism.
Figure 4.2: CDMA circuit-switched data architecture.
Figure 4.3: Example of CDMA2000 packet data architecture.
Figure 4.4: Examples of CDMA2000 data service protocol stacks.
Figure 4.5: CDMA2000 mobility hierarchy.
Figure 4.6: Typical CDMA2000 core network with AAA subsystems.
Figure 4.7: GPRS architecture.
Figure 4.8: 3GPP UMTS architecture.
Figure 4.9: The GPRS user plane and control plane.

Chapter 5: Mobile VPN Fundamentals

Figure 5.1: Tunneling in virtual private networking.
Figure 5.2: Private IP address masking via tunneling.
Figure 5.3: Voluntary VPN over 2G network.
Figure 5.4: Compulsory VPN in CDMA2000.
Figure 5.5: Chained tunnel VPN options (GPRS environment).
Figure 5.6: Dynamic Extranet VPN.
Figure 5.7: Landline remote access outsourcing.
Figure 5.8: VPN in wireless packet data environments.
Figure 5.9: VPN family tree.

Chapter 6: GSM/GPRS and UMTS VPN Solutions

Figure 6.1: IP VPNs for CSD.
Figure 6.2: IP architecture with PCO-based access mode.
Figure 6.3: DHCPv4 in GPRS systems.
Figure 6.4: PPP relayed using L2TP.
Figure 6.5: PPP terminated at the GGSN.
Figure 6.6: CAMEL Phase 3 prepaid systems architecture.
Figure 6.7: GPRS roaming networking.
Figure 6.8: GPRS roaming with GGSN in a visited network.
Figure 6.9: ACME Wireless network.
Figure 6.10: User identity management architecture.
Figure 6.11: Flow-through provisioning.

Chapter 7: CDMA2000 VPN Solutions

Figure 7.1: Simple IP VPN architecture model.
Figure 7.2: Simple IP VPN protocol reference model.
Figure 7.3: Simple IP VPN connection establishment
Figure 7.4: Mobile IP VPN options.
Figure 7.5: Public HA VPN architecture.
Figure 7.6: Public HA VPN protocol stack.
Figure 7.7: Private HA VPN architecture and protocol stack.
Figure 7.8: Dynamic HA allocation establishment.
Figure 7.9: CDMA2000 RADIUS-based AAA architecture and protocol reference model.
Figure 7.10: ACME USA combined IS-95/CDMA2000 core network.

Chapter 8: Mobile VPN Equipment

Figure 8.1: Bump-in-stack versus OS-integrated VPN clients.
Figure 8.2: MVPN gateway functions.

Chapter 9: The Future of Mobile Services

Figure 9.1: Simplified IMS architecture.
Figure 9.2: The 3GPP IMS subscriber registration.
Figure 9.3: Future mobile services examples.
Figure 9.4: Tight and loose cellular/WLAN integration options.
Figure 9.5: Mobile IP-based WLAN/cellular integration.

Appendix A: Mobile IP Extensions

Figure A.1: Mobile IP Challenge extension format.
Figure A.2: Mobile IP MN-FA Challenge extension format.
Figure A.3: Mobile IP Generalized Authentication extension format.
Figure A.4: NAI extension format.
Figure A.5: Critical vendor/organization extensions.
Figure A.6: Normal vendor/organization extensions.

Appendix B: CDMA2000 RADIUS Accounting Attributes

Figure B.1: 3GPP2 RADIUS attribute format. Reproduced under written permission from Telecommunications Industry Association.
Figure B.2: Accounting container format. Reproduced under written permission from Telecommunications Industry Association.