In the standards process, a recommendation is a specification that has achieved majority approval of its working group and its host organization and is released for outside evaluation.


To refer to or reference something is to indicate a relationship between the current context and an outside resource. Usually, the intent is to import a value into a collection of data. For example, an entity reference is a fragment of text telling an XML parser to insert the value of an entity that is defined in a DTD and stored in memory. An ID reference is a notation that indicates a relationship with an element possessing a unique ID that resides somewhere else in the document. The term reference is used to distinguish between an object or value and the thing that wants to use it. See also entity, entity reference.

relative location term

An XPointer location that is identified in reference to another location such as an absolute location term or the current node. See also absolute location term, XPath, XPointer.

relative URL

A URL that expresses a partial location. This location is understood to be relative to the current location of the reference, called the base URL.

remote resource

A resource that a simple link points to. See also local resource, resource, simple,link.


A source of information. In XML, a resource is something that can be linked to, such as an XML document, a graphic file, or a program.

root element

The base-level element of a document, containing all the other elements in the document. (Same as document element.) See also document, document element, element.

root node

The base-level node of a document, containing all the nodes that comprise the document. See also node.


The primary building block of a stylesheet, specifying which element or elements to set a style for (the selector), and the style to be applied (the properties declaration). See also stylesheet.