To help you get the most from the text and keep track of what’s happening, we’ve used a number of conventions throughout the book.


Boxes like this one hold important, not-to-be-forgotten information that is directly relevant to the surrounding text.


Tips, hints, tricks, and asides to the current discussion are offset and placed in italics like this.

As for styles in the text:

  • We highlight new terms and important words when we introduce them.

  • We show keyboard strokes like this: Ctrl+A.

  • We show file names, URLs, and code within the text like so:

  • We present code in two different ways:

In code examples, we highlight new and important code with a gray background.

The gray highlighting is not used for code that's less important in the present
context or has been shown before.