Conventions Used in This Book

The following conventions are used in this book:


Used for file, directory, user, and group names. It is also used for URLs and to emphasize new terms and concepts when they are introduced.

Constant Width

Used for code examples, system output, parameters, directives, and attributes.

Constant Width Italic

Used in examples for variable input or output (e.g., a filename).

Constant Width Bold

Used in code examples for user input and for emphasis.

This icon designates a note, which is an important aside to the nearby text.

This icon designates a warning relating to the nearby text.