5 Control Flow, Exception Handling, and Assertions

5.1

Finding primes using for-loops.

// Filename: ForPrimes.java
public class ForPrimes {
    final static int MAX = 100;
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        numbers:
        for (int num = 1; num < MAX; num++) {
            int divLim = (int) Math.sqrt(num);

            for (int div = 2; div <= divLim; div++)
                if ((num % div) == 0) continue numbers;
            System.out.println(num);
        }
    }
}

Finding primes using while-loops.

// Filename: WhilePrimes.java
public class WhilePrimes {
    final static int MAX = 100;

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        int num = 1;

        numbers:
        while (num < MAX) {
            int number = num++;

            int divLim = (int) Math.sqrt(number);
            int div = 2;
            while (div <= divLim)
                if ((number % div++) == 0) continue numbers;
            System.out.println(number);
        }
    }
}

5.2

/** A PowerPlant with a reactor core. */
public class PowerPlant {
    /** Each power plant has a reactor core. This has package
        accessibility so that the Control class which is defined in
        the same package can access it. */
    Reactor core;

    /** Create and initialize the PowerPlant with a reactor core.  */
    PowerPlant() {
        core = new Reactor();
    }

    /** Sound the alarm to evacuate the power plant.  */
    public void soundEvacuateAlarm() {
        // ... implementation unspecified ...
    }

    /** Get the level of reactor output that is most desirable at
        this time. (Units are unspecified.)  */
    public int getOptimalThroughput() {
        // ... implementation unspecified ...
        return 0;
    }

    /** The main entry point of the program. Will set up a PowerPlant
        object and a Control object and let the Control object run the
        PowerPlant.  */
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        PowerPlant plant = new PowerPlant();
        Control ctrl = new Control(plant);
        ctrl.runSystem();
    }
}

/** A reactor core that has a throughput that can be either decreased or
    increased.  */
class Reactor {
    /** Get the current throughput of the reactor. (Units are
       unspecified.)  */
    public int getThroughput() {
        // ... implementation unspecified ...
        return 0;
    }

    /** @returns true if the reactor status is critical, false otherwise.  */
    public boolean isCritical() {
        // ... implementation unspecified ...
        return false;
    }

    /** Ask the reactor to increase throughput.  */
    void increaseThroughput() throws ReactorCritical {
        // ... implementation unspecified ...
    }

    /** Ask the reactor to decrease throughput.  */
    void decreaseThroughput() {
        // ... implementation unspecified ...
    }
}

/** This exception class should be used to report that the reactor is
    critical.  */
class ReactorCritical extends Exception {}

/** A controller that will manage the power plant to make sure that the
    reactor runs with optimal throughput.  */
class Control {
    PowerPlant thePlant;

    public Control(PowerPlant p) {
        thePlant = p;
    }

    /** Run the power plant by continuously monitoring the
        optimalThroughput and the actual throughput of the reactor. If
        the throughputs differ by more than 10 units, adjust reactor
        throughput. If the reactor goes critical, the evacuate alarm is
        sounded and the reactor is shut down.
        <p>The runSystem() method does handle the reactor core directly
        but calls methods needAdjustment(), adjustThroughput(), and shutdown
        instead.  */
    public void runSystem() {
        try {
            while (true) { // infinite loop
                if (needAdjustment())
                    adjustThroughput(thePlant.getOptimalThroughput());
            }
        } catch (ReactorCritical rc) {
            thePlant.soundEvacuateAlarm();
        } finally {
            shutdown();
        }
    }

    /** Reports whether the throughput of the reactor needs
        adjusting. This method should also monitor and report if the
        reactor goes critical.

        @returns true if the optimal and actual throughput values
        differ by more than 10 units.  */
    public boolean needAdjustment() throws ReactorCritical {
    /* We added the throws clause to the method declaration so that
       the method can throw a ReactorCritical exception if the reactor
       goes critical.  */
        if (thePlant.core.isCritical())
            throw new ReactorCritical();
        return (Math.abs(thePlant.getOptimalThroughput() -
                          thePlant.core.getThroughput())) > 10;
    }

    /** Adjust the throughput of the reactor by calling increaseThroughput()
        and decreaseThroughput() until the actual throughput is within 10
        units of the target throughput.  */
    public void adjustThroughput(int target) throws ReactorCritical {
    /* We added the throws clause to the method declaration so that
       the method can pass on ReactorCritical exceptions thrown by
       increaseThroughput(). We do this because the adjustThroughput
       does not want to handle the exception.  */
        while (needAdjustment()) {
            if (thePlant.getOptimalThroughput() >
                    thePlant.core.getThroughput())
                thePlant.core.increaseThroughput();
            else
                thePlant.core.decreaseThroughput();
        }
    }

    /** Shut down the reactor by lowering the throughput to 0. */
    public void shutdown() {
        while (thePlant.core.getThroughput() != 0) {
            thePlant.core.decreaseThroughput();
        }
    }
}



     
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