# 7.1 Defining Structs

The syntax for declaring a struct is almost identical to that for a class:

```[attributes ] [access-modifiers ] struct  identifier  [:interface-list ]
{ struct-members  }```

Example 7-1 illustrates the definition of a struct. Location represents a point on a two-dimensional surface. Notice that the struct Location is declared exactly as a class would be, except for the use of the keyword struct. Also notice that the Location constructor takes two integers and assigns their value to the instance members, x and y. The x and y coordinates of Location are declared as properties.

##### Example 7-1. Creating a struct
```using System;

public struct Location
{
private int xVal;
private int yVal;

public Location(int xCoordinate, int yCoordinate)
{
xVal = xCoordinate;
yVal = yCoordinate;
}

public int x
{
get
{
return xVal;
}
set
{
xVal = value;
}
}

public int y
{
get
{
return yVal;
}
set
{
yVal = value;
}
}

public override string ToString( )
{
return (String.Format("{0}, {1}", xVal,yVal));
}

}

public class Tester
{
public void myFunc(Location loc)
{
loc.x = 50;
loc.y = 100;
Console.WriteLine("In MyFunc loc: {0}", loc);
}
static void Main( )
{
Location loc1 = new Location(200,300);
Console.WriteLine("Loc1 location: {0}", loc1);
Tester t = new Tester( );
t.myFunc(loc1);
Console.WriteLine("Loc1 location: {0}", loc1);
}
}
Output:
Loc1 location: 200, 300
In MyFunc loc: 50, 100
Loc1 location: 200, 300```

Unlike classes, structs do not support inheritance. They implicitly derive from object (as do all types in C#, including the built-in types) but cannot inherit from any other class or struct. Structs are also implicitly sealed (that is, no class or struct can derive from a struct). Like classes, however, structs can implement multiple interfaces. Additional differences include the following:

No destructor or custom default constructor

Structs cannot have destructors, nor can they have a custom parameterless (default) constructor. If you do not supply a constructor, your struct will in effect be provided with a default constructor that will zero all the data members or set them to default values appropriate to their type (see Table 4-2). If you supply any constructor, you must initialize all the fields in the struct.

No initialization

You cannot initialize an instance field in a struct. Thus it is illegal to write:

```private int xVal = 50;
private int yVal = 100;```

though that would have been fine had this been a class.

Structs are designed to be simple and lightweight. While private member data promotes data hiding and encapsulation, some programmers feel it is overkill for structs. They make the member data public, thus simplifying the implementation of the struct. Other programmers feel that properties provide a clean and simple interface, and that good programming practice demands data-hiding even with simple lightweight objects. Whichever you choose is a matter of design philosophy; the language supports either approach.

 Part II: Programming with C#
 Part III: The CLR and the .NET Framework
 Appendix A. C# Keywords