Fundamentally, computer security is a series of technical solutions to nontechnical problems. You can spend an unlimited amount of time, money, and effort on computer security, but you will never solve the problem of accidental data loss or intentional disruption of your activities. Given the right set of circumstances?e.g., software bugs, accidents, mistakes, bad luck, bad weather, or a sufficiently motivated and well-equipped attacker?any computer can be compromised, rendered useless, or even totally destroyed.
The job of the security professional is to help organizations decide how much time and money need to be spent on security. Another part of that job is to make sure that organizations have policies, guidelines, and procedures in place so that the money spent is spent well. And finally, the professional needs to audit the system to ensure that the appropriate controls are implemented correctly to achieve the policy's goals. Thus, practical security is often a question of management and administration more than it is one of technical skill. Consequently, security must be a priority of your organization's management.
This book divides the process of security planning into five discrete steps:
Planning to address your security needs
Conducting a risk assessment or adopting best practices
Creating policies to reflect your needs
Performing audit and incident response
This chapter covers security planning, risk assessment, cost-benefit analysis, and policy-making. Implementation is covered by many of the chapters of this book. Audits are described in Chapter 21, and incident response in Chapter 22-Chapter 25.
There are two critical principles implicit in effective policy and security planning:
Policy and security awareness must be driven from the top down in the organization. Security concerns and awareness by the users are important, but they cannot build or sustain an effective culture of security. Instead, the head(s) of the organization must treat security as important, and abide by all the same rules and regulations as everyone else.
Effective computer security means protecting information. Although protecting resources is also critical, resource losses are more easily identified and remedied than information losses. All plans, policies and procedures should reflect the need to protect information in whatever form it takes. Proprietary data does not become worthless when it is on a printout or is faxed to another site instead of contained in a disk file. Customer confidential information does not suddenly lose its value because it is recited on the phone between two users instead of contained within an email message. The information should be protected no matter what its form.