Conventions Used in This Book

Throughout this book, we've used the following typographic conventions:

Constant width

Constant width in body text indicates a language construct, such as the name of a stored procedure, a SQL statement, a VBA statement, an enumeration, an intrinsic or user-defined constant, a structure (i.e., a user-defined type), or an expression (e.g., dblElapTime = Timer - dblStartTime). Code fragments and code examples appear exclusively in constant-width text. In syntax statements and prototypes, text set in constant width indicates such language elements as the function or procedure name and any invariable elements required by the syntax.

Constant width italic

Constant width italic is used in body text for variables and parameter names. In syntax statements or prototypes, constant width italic indicates replaceable parameters.


Italicized words in the text indicate intrinsic or user-defined function and procedure names. Example URLs are also italicized, as are many system elements, such as paths and filenames. Finally, italics are used the first time a new term appears.

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