Different IP network scanning methods allow you to test and effectively identify vulnerable network components. Here is a list of effective network scanning techniques and their applications:
By launching an ICMP ping sweep, you can effectively identify poorly protected hosts (as security conscious administrators filter inbound ICMP messages) and perform a degree of operating-system fingerprinting and reconnaissance by analyzing responses to the ICMP probes.
A SYN port scan is often the most effective type of port scan to launch directly against a target IP network space. SYN scanning is extremely fast, allowing you to scan large networks quickly.
Inverse scanning types (particularly FIN, Xmas, and NULL) take advantage of idiosyncrasies in certain TCP/IP stack implementations. This scanning type isn't effective when scanning large network spaces, although it is useful when testing and investigating the security of specific hosts and small network segments.
Using a combination of vulnerable network components and TCP spoofing, third-party TCP port scans can be effectively launched. Scanning in this fashion has two benefits: hiding the true source of a TCP scan and assessing the filters and levels of trust between hosts. Although time consuming to undertake, third-party scanning is extremely useful when applied correctly.
Identifying accessible UDP services can be undertaken easily only if ICMP type 3 code 3 (destination port unreachable) messages are allowed back through filtering mechanisms that protect target systems. UDP services can sometimes be used to gather useful data or directly compromise hosts (the DNS, SNMP, TFTP, and BOOTP services in particular).
Intrusion detection systems and other security mechanisms can be rendered ineffective by using multiple spoofed decoy hosts when scanning or by fragmenting probe packets using nmap or fragroute. Filters such as firewalls, routers, and even software (including the Microsoft IPsec filter) can sometimes be bypassed using specific source TCP or UDP ports, source routing, or stateful attacks.