Conventions Used in This Book

The following typographic conventions are used in this book:

Italic is used to indicate new terms and for comments in code sections. It is also used for URLs, FTP sites, filenames, and directory names. Some code sections begin with a line of italicized text, which usually specifies the file that the code belongs in.

Constant width is used for code sections and program names.

Constant width italic is used to indicate replaceable parts of code.

Constant width bold is used to indicate text typed by the user in code sections.

We capitalize the names of software packages or protocols, such as Tripwire or FTP, in contrast to their associated programs, denoted tripwire and ftp.

We use the following standards for shell prompts, so it's clear if a command must be run by a particular user or on a particular machine:

Shell Prompt



Ordinary user prompt


Root shell prompt


Shell prompt on host myhost


Root prompt on host myhost


Shell prompt for user myname


Shell prompt for user myname on host myhost

This icon indicates a tip, suggestion, or general note.

This icon indicates a warning or caution.

    Chapter 9. Testing and Monitoring