Parallel to and independent to TEX, another major text processing system emerged in the form of troff and nroff . These were developed at Bell Labs for the original implementation of Unix (in fact, the development of Unix was spurred, in part, to support such a text processing system). The first version of this text processor was called roff (for "runoff"); later came nroff and troff, which generated output for a particular typesetter in use at the time (nroff was written for fixed-pitch printers such as dot matrix printers, troff for proportional space devicesinitially typesetters). Later versions of nroff and troff became the standard text processor on Unix systems everywhere. groff is GNU's implementation of nroff and troff that is used on Linux systems. It includes several extended features and drivers for a number of printing devices.
groff is capable of producing documents, articles, and books, much in the same vein as TEX. However, groff (as well as the original nroff ) has one intrinsic feature that is absent from TEX and variants: the ability to produce plain-ASCII output. Although TEX is great for producing documents to be printed, groff is able to produce plain ASCII to be viewed online (or printed directly as plain text on even the simplest of printers). If you're going to be producing documentation to be viewed online as well as in printed form, groff may be the way to go (although there are other alternatives as wellTexinfo, which is discussed later, is one).
groff also has the benefit of being much smaller than TEX; it requires fewer support files and executables than even a minimal TEX distribution.
One special application of groff is to format Unix manual pages. If you're a Unix programmer, you'll eventually need to write and produce manual pages of some kind. In this section, we introduce the use of groff through the writing of a short manual page.
As with TEX, groff uses a particular text-formatting language to describe how to process the text. This language is slightly more cryptic than TEX but is also less verbose. In addition, groff provides several macro packages that are used on top of the basic groff formatter; these macro packages are tailored to a particular type of document. For example, the mgs macros are an ideal choice for writing articles and papers, and the man macros are used for manual pages.
20.3.1. Writing a Manual Page
Writing manual pages with groff is actually quite simple. In order for your manual page to look like other manual pages, you need to follow several conventions in the source, which are presented in the following example. In this example, we write a manual page for a mythical command coffee, which controls your networked coffee machine in various ways.
Enter the following source with your text editor, and save the result as coffee.man:
1 .TH COFFEE 1 "23 March 94" 2 .SH NAME 3 coffee \- Control remote coffee machine 4 .SH SYNOPSIS 5 \fBcoffee\fP [ -h | -b ] [ -t \fItype\fP ] \fIamount\fP 6 .SH DESCRIPTION 7 \fIcoffee\fP queues a request to the remote coffee machine at the 8 device \fB/dev/cf0\fR. The required \fIamount\fP argument specifies 9 the number of cups, generally between 0 and 15 on ISO standard 10 coffee machines. 11 .SS Options 12 .TP 13 \fB-h\fP 14 Brew hot coffee. Cold is the default. 15 .TP 16 \fB-b\fP 17 Burn coffee. Especially useful when executing \fIcoffee\fP on behalf 18 of your boss. 19 .TP 20 \fB-t \fItype\fR 21 Specify the type of coffee to brew, where \fItype\fP is one of 22 \fBcolombian\fP, \fBregular\fP, or \fBdecaf\fP. 23 .SH FILES 24 .TP 25 \fI/dev/cf0\fR 26 The remote coffee machine device 27 .SH "SEE ALSO" 28 milk(5), sugar(5) 29 .SH BUGS 30 May require human intervention if coffee supply is exhausted.
Don't let the amount of obscurity in this source file frighten you. It helps to know that the character sequences \fB, \fI, and \fR are used to change the font to boldface, italics, and roman type, respectively. \fP resets the font to the one previously selected.
Other groff requests appear on lines beginning with a dot (.). On line 1, we see that the .TH request sets the title of the manual page to COFFEE and the manual section to 1. (Manual section 1 is used for user commands, section 2 for system calls, and so forth.) The .TH request also sets the date of the last manual page revision.
On line 2, the .SH request starts a section entitled NAME. Note that almost all Unix manual pages use the section progression NAME, SYNOPSIS, DESCRIPTION, FILES, SEE ALSO, NOTES, AUTHOR, and BUGS, with extra optional sections as needed. This is just a convention used when writing manual pages and isn't enforced by the software at all.
Line 3 gives the name of the command and a short description, after a dash (\-). You should use this format for the NAME section so that your manual page can be added to the whatis database used by the man -k and apropos commands.
On lines 4 to 5, we give the synopsis of the command syntax for coffee. Note that italic type (\fI...\fP) is used to denote parameters on the command line in the manual page, and that optional arguments are enclosed in square brackets.
Lines 6 to 10 give a brief description of the command. Italic type generally denotes commands, filenames, and user options. On line 11, a subsection named Options is started with the .SS request. Following this on lines 11 to 22 is a list of options, presented using a tagged list. Each item in the tagged list is marked with the .TP request; the line after .TP is the tag, after which follows the item text itself. For example, the source on lines 12 to 14:
.TP \fB-h\fP Brew hot coffee. Cold is the default.
will appear as the following in the output:
-h Brew hot coffee. Cold is the default.
You should document each command-line option for your program in this way.
Lines 23 to 26 make up the FILES section of the manual page, which describes any files the command might use to do its work. A tagged list using the .TP request is used for this as well.
On lines 27 and 28, the SEE ALSO section is given, which provides cross references to other manual pages of note. Notice that the string "SEE ALSO" following the .SH request on line 27 is in quotation marks; this is because .SH uses the first whitespace-delimited argument as the section title. Therefore, any section titles that are composed of more than one word need to be enclosed in quotation marks to make up a single argument. Finally, on lines 29 and 30, the BUGS section is presented.
20.3.2. Formatting and Installing the Manual Page
To format this manual page and view it on your screen, use the following command:
eggplant$ groff -Tascii -man coffee.man | more
The -Tascii option tells groff to produce plain-ASCII output; -man tells groff to use the manual-page macro set. If all goes well, the manual page should be displayed:
COFFEE(1) COFFEE(1) NAME coffee - Control remote coffee machine SYNOPSIS coffee [ -h | -b ] [ -t type ] amount DESCRIPTION coffee queues a request to the remote coffee machine at the device /dev/cf0. The required amount argument speci- fies the number of cups, generally between 0 and 12 on ISO standard coffee machines. Options -h Brew hot coffee. Cold is the default. -b Burn coffee. Especially useful when executing cof- fee on behalf of your boss. -t type Specify the type of coffee to brew, where type is one of colombian, regular, or decaf. FILES /dev/cf0 The remote coffee machine device SEE ALSO milk(5), sugar(5) BUGS May require human intervention if coffee supply is exhausted.
As mentioned before, groff is capable of producing other types of output. Using the -Tps option in place of -Tascii produces PostScript output that you can save to a file, view with Ghostview, or print on a PostScript printer. -Tdvi produces device-independent .dvi output similar to that produced by TEX.
If you wish to make the manual page available for others to view on your system, you need to install the groff source in a directory that is present on the users' MANPATH. The location for standard manual pages is /usr/share/man, although some systems also use /usr/man or /usr/local/man. The source for section 1 manual pages should therefore go in /usr/man/man1. The command:
eggplant$ cp coffee.man /usr/man/man1/coffee.1
installs this manual page in /usr/man for all to use (note the use of the .1 filename extension, instead of .man). When man coffee is subsequently invoked, the manual page will be automatically reformatted, and the viewable text saved in /usr/man/ cat1/coffee.1.gz.
If you can't copy manual page sources directly to /usr/man, you can create your own manual page directory tree and add it to your MANPATH. See the section "Manual Pages" in Chapter 4.