The final concept we introduce in this chapter is end-to-end security, which is the result of considering the wider aspects of security, beyond the resources and secrets protected by your application. Although this book is focused on implementing software security, it is important that you take a higher-level view, taking into account the real world and its complexity. The following sections highlight other issues that you should consider.
One of the most important things to remember about security is that not everyone shares your motivations and aspirations, and not everyone thinks the way that you think. The most carefully defined software trust system may not reflect the actual trust that has been granted to users of an application.
As a simple example, when we outlined the important roles that play in security, we differentiated between the legitimate users of an application and the hackers who want to subvert it. The reality is less clear-cut; most fraud is perpetrated by employees otherwise trusted by their company; when you grant trust to a user, you may be providing that individual tools that will be used to defraud, and otherwise rob, your company.
Differences in motivation are especially relevant when considering coercion; although you may feel that the security and profitability of your application is paramount, others may not. In some countries, it is common to rob a bank by kidnapping the branch manager's children, coercing the manager to unlock the bank and provide access to the vaults in order to secure the freedom of his offspring. The robbers have secured access to the protected resources with the explicit cooperation of a trusted employee. When thinking about security, you must give consideration to motivation, both of the potential users and the potential attackers.
A side-channel attack employs methods that have little to do with the software security measures that protect an application. For example, looking over a person's shoulder while he types his password circumvents any policy that may be put in place to control identity authentication; the attacker has side-stepped the security measures and can now access the system.
Identifying potential side-channel attacks takes a lot of lateral thinking, and requires careful evaluation of the information exposed by your security systems that attackers might be able to exploit. Various smart-card technologies, for example, have been compromised by analyzing variations in power consumption, electromagnetic radiation, and the amount of time taken to process an authentication request associated with their use. Such an attack takes time and determination, but can be profitable if the smart card is used to manage cash transactions or provides access to expensive resources.
Physical security is often ignored when application software is secured. Many years of effort may go into designing an application that carefully controls access to the contents of a warehouse, but if the security of the warehouse itself is weak, then attackers will simply steal your goods directly rather than attempting to subvert your application to ship goods free-of-charge.
A good example of physical security is represented by automated teller machines (ATMs). An ATM employs physical measures to protect against tampering and outright theft, as well as the software measures that authenticate your card and PIN number.
Finally, we draw your attention to third-party software, which you may rely on for the development of your application. Examples of this kind of software include development environments (such as Microsoft Visual Studio .NET), class libraries, and language compilers.
It is important for you to understand that by using third-party software, you are trusting the software publisher to produce software that does not present a security risk, either in the functionality that is provided or by the introduction of malicious features. You should also realize that when you distribute software that depends on third-party software, you are asking your customers to grant the same level of trust to the third parties as they do to you and your organization.
For example, you may trust Microsoft to produce safe and secure software, and you may feel confident that Internet Explorer provides a secure environment in which to browse the World Wide Web. However, if you look at the information provided by the "About Internet Explorer" window, you will see that Internet Explorer 6 is built, in part, with software licenses from the following organizations:
National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Champaign
RSA Data Security, Inc.
The Independent JPEG Group
When you trust Microsoft to deliver Internet Explorer without the inclusion of security-related defects or malicious code, you also implicitly trust all of the companies listed above, some that you may not even have heard of. Each of these companies may in turn license content or functionality from other publishers, and the chain continues; the trust that you confer on an individual software publisher goes far beyond what you may expect, and this is equally true for development software and class libraries as it is for Windows applications.
When selecting third-party tools and libraries for your development projects, you must consider the level of trust that you assign to the software publisher and any other companies or individuals that may have contributed to these products.