List the contents of a directory.
ls [options] [directory_name]
-a displays all files, including those that start with a period (.).
-b displays unprintable characters in filenames with octal code.
-c sorts according to file creation time.
-d lists directories like any other file (rather than listing their contents).
-f lists directory contents without sorting (exactly as they are in the disk).
-i shows the inode information.
-l shows the file listing in the long format, with detailed information.
-p appends a character to a filename to indicate its type.
-r sorts the listing in reverse alphabetical order.
-s shows the size (in kilobytes) of each file next to the filename.
-t sorts the listing according to the file's time stamp.
-1 displays a one-column listing of filenames.
-R recursively lists the files in all subdirectories.
The ls command displays the listing of a specified directory. If you omit the directory name, ls displays the contents of the current directory. By default, ls does not list files whose names begin with a period (.); to see all files, type ls -a. You can see full details of files (including size, user and group ownership, and read-write-execute permissions) with the ls -l command.